Astronomy: Full Hunter's Moon on the 22nd.
Draconid meteor shower: October 7th and 8th, in the late evening. Not one of the spectacular showers, with only about 6 meteors per hour, but it should be dark enough to see, as the New Moon is two days previous. Look north.
Orionid meteor shower: October 21st, in the predawn. The full moon will drown it out.
Based on the 12 Days of Christmas: Snow, all day, but with little accumulation.
Based on the first 12 days of January: Bright sunshine and a little less cold.
Based on the Ember Days: Bright, sunny, blue skies. Warm enough to be comfortable.
The last Sunday of the month indicates the weather for next month: Quite warm and overcast.
"Much rain in October, much wind in December" Well, we have had a good deal of rain this month, with one nor'easter and a couple of gully-washers. The winds of December should be hefty.
"If October bring heavy frosts and winds, then will January and February be mild" [forgive my look of disbelief, but... define 'mild'. Above 0 rather than below? Warm enough to snow? Mild, to me, is a 70-degree day. Not even the purported global warming has given me a 70-degree day in February.] Meanwhile, no frost, but high winds. Will January and February be sorta, kinda mild?
"For every fog in October, a snow in winter; heavy or light according as the fog is heavy or light" We had one fog on the 27th. It was pretty heavy along the coast; inland, not so much.
"Warm October, cold February" [Ha! It doesn't matter what October is, February is COLD! LONG and COLD! Excruciatingly LONG and COLD!] October has been, with a few exceptions, quite warm. February will be, with few exceptions, quite cold.
"As the weather in October, so will it be the next March" Now, there is something to look forward to! A warm March. Maybe Spring will come on time and not wait until May.
"Full moon in October without frost, no frost until full moon in November" No frost. Which is unusual here. Instead of decently dying, my grass continues to grow. I don't need a cold month. Just one frost to slow the growth. Lawn mowing is not something I want to do all winter.
Health: "Avoid being out late at Nights or in foggy Weather, for a Cold now got may continue the whole Winter"